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Clinical features

  • Rare before 12 years
  • Slight female predominance
  • Haemoptysis
  • Rarely associated with endocrine symptoms
  • Occasionally associated with other endocrine tumours
  • Main lobar or segmental bronchi
  • In children they are rarely peripheral

Fig 93 – Carcinoid – Smear from a transthoracic guided fine needle aspiration. Uniform population of single round/ oval regular neoplastic cells. Occasionally cells get together in small acini. Clear background (H&E).

Unless you see necrosis, differential diagnosis between typical and atypical carcinoid should not be done in cytology

  • Clean background
  • Uniform population of round/ oval regular cells
  • Single cells or loose clusters
  • Acinar formations
  • Finely stippled chromatin
  • Small inconspicuous nucleoli
  • Scant cytoplasm


  • AE1/AE3: Positive
  • NSE: Positive
  • Chromogranin A: Positive
  • Synaptophysin: Positive
  • CD56 (NCAM): Positive
  • TTF1: Positive

Genetic studies

  • Trisomy of chromosome 7

Differential Diagnosis

  • Lymphoma
    • Lymphoglandular bodies
    • Single cells
    • CD45 Positive

Main points

  • Cured with resection