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  • Bimodal age distribution (peaks at two and 15-20 years of age).
  • Most common entities:
    • Children under two years of age
      • Teratoma and endodermal sinus tumour are the most common entities
      • Most tumours occur at extragonadal sites: sacrococcygeal, head, neck, retroperitoneum, stomach, liver, central nervous system, heart and vagina
    • Adolescence
      • Gonadal and mediastinal sites are the most common locations at this age
      • At this age, they represent 15% of all mediastinal cysts and tumours
      • There is a well-known association between haematological malignancies and mediastinal germ cell tumours
      • Seminoma is a rare tumour at this age or younger
      • Most testicular tumours are mixed germ cell tumours
  • Ovarian malignancies account for about 1% of all childhood malignancies (the majority are germ cell tumours)