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There have been many studies to determine the cause or causes of cervical cancer  during the last 50 years. Most of the  studies  have involved comparison of women with CIN or invasive cancer with women with normal cervices. The women are matched for age, parity, and social status in order to identify the causative agent(s) or co factors responsible for the development of cervical neoplasia. Despite extensive studies, no single factor emerges as the sole cause of the disease and it is probable that a number of factors  are operating in combination. These include sexual behaviour, contraceptive use, smoking and immunological status . There is also strong evidence that a sexually transmitted agent is involved and the human papilloma viruses are the prime suspects at this time.