Immunocytochemistry

Author: Susan Van Noorden Preservation of Cytological Samples for Immunocytochemistry Foreword Immunocytochemistry is now essential for full and accurate pathological diagnosis of tissue samples whether of formalin-fixed blocks or cell preparations from brushings, scrapings, smears or fine needle aspirates. The success of the method depends to a large extent on the morphological preservation of the […]

Respiratory Tract

On completion of this section the cytotechnologist should Know: the anatomy and histology of the respiratory tract the role and indications of respiratory tract cytology the advantages and disadvantages of the different sampling methods the reporting terminology cytologic features of normal cells from the respiratory tract the non-cellular elements and contaminants which may appear in […]

Automation and Liquid Based Cytology

On completion of this section the cytotechnologist should know: The requirements of an automated system The basic components of an automated system Automated systems which have undergone clinical trials Principles of Liquid based cytology Surepath and thinprep commercial systems Advantages and disadvantages of liquid based cytology Adequacy of LBC specimins Bethesda recomendations for assessing adequacy […]

Liver

On completion of this section the cytotechnologist should Know: the anatomy and histology of the liver indications of fine needle aspiration cytologic features of hepatocytes, bile duct epithelial cells and Kupffer cells cytologic features of hepatic infectious processes cytologic features of cirrhosis cytologic features of nodular hyperplasia and adenoma cytologic features of the other benign […]

Lymph Node

Introduction Lymph nodes were probably the first organs to be investigated by fine needle cytology (FNC) and the last in which this technique has been accepted by clinicians as a useful diagnostic procedure. Risk of seeding, false negatives, failure to discriminate between reactive hyperplasia and lymphoma, have been put forward as a limitation or useless […]

Pancreas

On completion of this section the cytotechnologist should Know: the anatomy and histology of the pancreas indications of fine needle aspiration slide preparation methods indications of biliary brushing the reporting terminology cytologic features of benign acinar and ductal epithelial cells cytologic features of acute and chronic pancreatitis cytologic features of pancreatic pseudocysts cytologic features of […]

Cervical cytology

Authors: Amanda Herbert The cervical chapters comprise the following material: Introduction Anatomy, histology and function of the cervix Cervical cancer epidemiology and aetiology Cervical cancer worldwide and in Europe HPV as a causative agent and other risk factors Pathogenesis of cervical cancer and its precursors CIN and squamous cell carcinoma AIS and adenocarcinoma Presentation, stage […]

Spleen

General Nodular or diffuse splemomegalies may be determined by several causes; in most cases, clinical and serological data are diagnostic but there are still rare conditions or equivocal clinical presentations in which a direct evaluation may be useful. FNC of the spleen was first used for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and was then extensively used […]