Insular carcinoma

Poorly differentiated carcinomas (insular carcinoma) Some thyroid carcinomas have an intermediate grade of atypia between well-differentiated carcinomas and anaplastic carcinoma. These poorly differentiated carcinomas account for <5% of thyroid carcinomas. One distinctive form is insular carcinoma.  Cytologic diagnostic features high cellularity mostly single cells clusters, microfollicles monomorphous round nuclei  On hystologic preparations, malignant cells of […]

Anaplastic carcinoma

It accounts for less than 5% of thyroid cancers and it is associated with a very poor prognosis. It presents clinically as a rapidly growing neck mass which usually has already infiltrated adjacent structures at the time of diagnosis. In about one-third of cases, anaplastic carcinoma is associated to a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (such as […]


Primary thyroid non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTNHL) is a rare neoplasm, which typically occurs in older-aged women in the setting of Hashimoto`s thyroiditis. The risk for a patient with thyroditis is much greater than in the general population, but occurrence of a lymphoma is very rare. Most patients present with an enlarging neck mass and cervical lymph […]

Metastatic carcinoma

The breast, the kidney and the lungs are the most common primary sites of metastatic tumors to the thyroid. This possibility should be considered if the cytologic pattern does not conform with common neoplasms or the patient has a history of cancer elsewhere. In many cases, however, there is no clinical history of malignancy. Metastatic […]

Medullary carcinoma

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) accounts for about 5% of thyroid cancers. Differently from the other carcinomas, which arise from the follicular cells, medullary carcinoma arises from parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid, which synthetize calcitonin. About 80-90% are sporadic and occur in adults, the rest occur in children in genetic syndromes called multiple endocrine […]

Malignant tumours

Malignant tumours: Papillary carcinoma Poorly differentiated carcinomas (insular carcinoma) Anaplastic carcinoma Medullary carcinoma Lymphoma Metastatic carcinoma

Benign conditions

Benign conditions Acute thyroiditis Subacute granulomatous (De Quervain`s) thyroiditis Chronic lymphocytic (Hashimoto`s) thyroiditis Riedel`s disease Multinodular goiter Radiation changes

Acute thyroiditis

Acute thyroiditis, a very rare condition due to bacterial infections, is usually diagnosed clinically, without the need for FNA. Aspirates are composed predominantly of neutrophils and inflammatory debris, and thyroid epithelial cells are scanty and degenerated.

Subacute granulomatous (De Quervain`s) thyroiditis

It is a rare self-limited disease, usually lasting several months, characterized by a painful enlargement of the gland. It is a granulomatous inflammatory condition which leads finally to fibrosis of the gland. Cytologic diagnostic features granulomas giant cells lymphocytes and neutrophils The cytologic specimens contain nodular aggregate of hystiocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils. Epithelioid cells and […]

Chronic lymphocytic (Hashimoto`s) thyroiditis

This is an autoimmune disease in which the parenchima is virtually replaced by a lymphoid infiltrate with germinal centers, sometimes with a prominent fibrosis in longstanding disease. Several autoantibodies are identified in affected patients, such as antibodies against thyroid microsomal antigens and against TSH receptors. The gland is usually enlarged, painless, with or without nodularity. […]