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Benign conditions

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  • Urine is usually turbid
  • The cytological picture shows numerous polymorphonuclear neutrophils and histiocytes.
  • Eosinophils and lymphocytes can also be detected
  • Accentuated reactive changes in epithelial cells
  • Cellular debris
  • Bacteria and other organisms may be present

In women it is not uncommon to see Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans and cellular changes induced by polyomavirus (decoy cells).
Regardless the sex, cytopathic changes due to Herpesvirus or Cytomegalovirus can be identified. Other identifiable organisms are, for example, Enterobius vermicularis, Schistoma haematobium.


  • Turbid, cloudy and/or blood-stained urine
  • Erythrocytes
  • Possible inflammatory component
  • Clusters of urothelial cells with papillary structure
  • The epithelial cells show increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio and small nucleoli. The cellular borders cam be smooth or irregular
  • The reactive changes can be very pronounced